Background: Physical activity interventions are known to be effective in improving the physical and psychological complaints of breast cancer survivors. Purpose: To investigate the impact of a specific exercise training program on upper limb mobility and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Methods: The study included 55 women recruited at the Cancer Rehabilitation Centre in Florence after the completion of breast cancer treatment and rehabilitative physiotherapy. All participants underwent an 8-week specific exercise training to improve upper limb mobility function and quality of life. Anthropometric parameters were measured, and each subject underwent a battery of fitness tests to assess shoulder-arm mobility, range of motion, and back flexibility before and after specific exercise program. All participants filled out the Short Form-12 and numerical rating scale questionnaires to assess the quality of life and to quantify back and shoulder pain intensity. Results: The evaluation of shoulder-arm mobility and self-reported questionnaire data revealed a statistically significant improvement after completion of our specific exercise program. Conclusion: An organized specific program of adapted physical activity can be effective in reducing the main adverse effects of surgery and oncological therapy, and may significantly improve shoulder-arm mobility and quality of life in breast cancer survivors.