A large body of scientific evidence collected in recent decades demonstrates that an adequate intake of calcium and other nutrients from dairy foods reduces the risk of osteoporosis by increasing bone acquisition during growth, slowing age-related bone loss, and reducing osteoporotic fractures. These results have culminated in the new (2005) Dietary Guidelines for Americans that now recommend 3 servings of milk products per day to reduce the risk of low bone mass and contribute important amounts of many nutrients that may have additional health attributes beyond bone health. A number of animal, observational, and clinical studies have shown that dairy food consumption can help reduce the risk of hypertension. Clinical trials indicate that the consumption of recommended levels of dairy products, as part of a healthy diet, can contribute to lower blood pressure in individuals with normal and elevated blood pressure. Emerging data also indicate that specific peptides associated with casein and whey proteins can significantly lower blood pressure. In addition, a growing body of evidence has provided support for a beneficial effect of dairy foods on body weight and fat loss. Clinical studies have demonstrated that during caloric restriction, body weight and body fat loss occurs when adequate calcium is provided by supplements and that this effect is further augmented by an equivalent amount of calcium supplied from dairy foods. Several studies support a role for calcium, vitamin D, and dairy foods against colon cancer. Additionally, conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found naturally in dairy fat, confers a wide range of anticarcinogenic benefits in experimental animal models and is especially consistent for protection against breast cancer.